Dextrose (D-Glucose)

Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Drug Combinations
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Pregnancy and Lactation Implications
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Austria: Glucose; Denmark: Glucos, Glukose; Finland: Glucos, Glucosteril; France: Glucose; Germany: Glucose, Glucosteril; Greece: Dextrose; Hungary: Glucose, Glucosum; Ireland: Dextrose, Glucose; Italy: Glucosio; Luxembourg: Glucose, Glucosteril; Poland: Glucose, Glucosum, Glukoza; Portugal: Glucosado, Glucose, Glucosteril; Spain: Dextrosa, Flebobag Glucosada, Fleboplast Glucosada, Freeflex Glucosa, Glucosa, Glucosada, Meinvenil Glucosa, Plast Apyr Glucosado, Solución Glucosada, Suero Glucosado; Sweden: Glucos, Glukos; UK: Glucose.

North America

USA: B-D Glucose, Dex4 Glucose, Enfamil Glucose, Glutol, Glutose, Insta-Glucose, Similac Glucose.

Latin America

Argentina: Nutrosa, Solución de Dextrosa; Mexico: Dextrose.


Japan: Glucose.

Drug combinations

Dextrose: Arginine, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C); Butter Oil; Calcium; Calcium Citrate; Calcium Chloride; Cocoa; Corn Flour; Corn Oil; Creatine; Honey; Inulin; Iron; L-Glutamine; L-Isoleucine; L-Leucine; L-Lysine; L-Valine; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Lactose; Lactulose; Magnesium; Maltodextrin; Nitroglycerin; Potassium; Rice Flour; Skim Milk Powder; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Phosphate; Soybean Oil; Wheat Flour


Dextrose: C~6~H~12~O~6~ H~2~O. Mw: 198.17. D-Glucose, monohydrate. CAS-5996-10-1 (acyclic form); CAS-77029-61-9 (D-glucopyranose monohydrate); CAS-50-99-7 (D-glucose, anhydrous); CAS-2280-44-6 (D-glucopyranose, anhydrous); CAS-492-62-5 (α-D-glucopyranose, anhydrous); CAS-492-61-5 (β-D-glucopyranose, anhydrous).

Pharmacologic Category

Electrolytic, Caloric, and Water Balance; Caloric Agents. Hyperglycemic Agent. Intravenous Nutritional Therapy. (ATC-Code: B05CX01; V04CA02; V06DC01).

Mechanism of action

Carbohydrate caloric agent; monosaccharide. Increases blood glucose concentrations and provides calories and water. May aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion, exert a protein-sparing action, and decrease or prevent ketosis. Induces diuresis.

Therapeutic use

Used as a parenteral source of calories and water for parenteral nutrition and hydration. Hypertonic dextrose injections (concentration >5%) are used to provide adequate calories in a minimal volume of water. May be admixed with amino acid injections or other compatible I.V. fluids to provide parenteral nutrition.

Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Use with caution in nursing women.

Unlabeled use


Hypersensitivity to corn or corn products. Diabetic coma with hyperglycemia. Hypertonic solutions in intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage. Patients with delirium tremens and dehydration. Patients with anuria, hepatic coma, or glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome.

Warnings and precautions

Unexpected hyperglycemia may be an early symptom of infection. Use with caution in diabetes mellitus. Risk of increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants due to excessive or rapid dextrose administration. Parenteral dextrose solutions contain aluminum which may reach toxic levels with prolonged administration, particularly in impaired renal function (CNS and bone toxicity), including in premature neonates. Avoid using oral forms in unconscious patients. Rebound hypoglycemia may be associated with abrupt withdrawal. Hypertonic solutions (>10%) may cause thrombosis if infused via peripheral veins. Risk of hyperglycemia and/or hyperosmolar syndrome (e.g. dehydration, hypovolemia, mental confusion, loss of consciousness) with rapid administration, especially in chronic uremia and known carbohydrate intolerance. Possible fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolytes, overhydration, congested conditions, or pulmonary edema. Infusion site and other reactions (e.g. fever, infection at the injection site, venous thrombosis, hypervolemia, extravasation, phlebitis extending from injection site) might occur. Hypertonic dextrose injections may cause local pain or venous irritation or damage. Possible hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia after prolonged use of concentrated dextrose solutions. Risk of glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia in pediatric patients, especially in low-birthweight infants and neonates. Risk of increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage with excessive or rapid administration in low-birthweight infants.



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