Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Pregnancy and Lactation Implications
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Caution and personalized dose adjustment in patients with the following genotypes
  • Other genes that may be involved
  • Substrate of
  • Drug Interactions
  • Nutrition/Nutraceutical Interactions
  • Dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Austria: Petinimid; Belgium: Zarontin; Bulgaria: Suxilep; Cyprus: Emeside, Ethosuximide; Czech Republic: Petinimid; Denmark: Zarondan; France: Zarontin; Germany: Petnidan, Suxilep; Greece: Petinimid, Zarontin; Hungary: Petnidan; Ireland: Zarontin; Luxembourg: Petnidan; Malta: Ethosuximide; Netherlands: Ethymal; Poland: Petinimid, Ronton; Romania: Petinimid; Slovakia: Petinimid, Petnidan; Sweden: Suxinutin; UK: Emeside, Ethosuximide, Zarontin.

North America

Canada: Zarontin; USA: Ethosuximide, Zarontin.

Latin America

Argentina: Zarontin; Mexico: Fluozoid.


Japan: Epileo Petit mal, Zarontin.

Drug combinations


Ethosuximide: C~7~H~11~NO~2~. Mw: 141.17. (1) 2,5-Pyrrolidinedione, 3-ethyl-3-methyl-, (±)-; (2)(±)-2-Ethyl-2-methylsuccinimide. CAS-77-67-8 (1962).

Pharmacologic Category

Anticonvulsants; Succinimides. (ATC-Code: N03AD01).

Mechanism of action

A succinimide-derivative anticonvulsant. Exact mechanism of anticonvulsant action unknown. Increases seizure threshold in cortex and basal ganglia and reduces synaptic response to low-frequency repetitive stimulation. Suppresses paroxysmal spike and wave activity of the EEG associated with lapses of consciousness common in absence seizures.

Therapeutic use

Alone or with other anticonvulsants (e.g. valproic acid) as first-line therapy in prophylactic management of absence (petit mal) seizures.

Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Ethosuximide crosses the placenta. Cases of birth defects reported in infants.

Unlabeled use


Hypersensitivity to ethosuximide, other succinimides, or any component of the formulation.

Warnings and precautions

Succinimides associated with cases of systemic lupus erythematosus and with blood dyscrasias. Use with caution in hepatic or renal impairment. Infection might occur. Effects with other sedative drugs or ethanol may be potentiated. Must be used in combination with other anticonvulsants in patients with both absence and tonic-clonic seizures. May increase tonic-clonic seizures in mixed seizure disorders. Anticonvulsants should not be discontinued abruptly (may increase seizure frequency).



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