Sodium Bicarbonate

Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Drug Combinations
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Unlabeled Use
  • Pregnancy and Lactation Implications
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Toxicological Effects
  • Genes that may be involved
  • Drug Interactions
  • Nutrition/Nutraceutical Interactions
  • Dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Austria: Sodium Bicarbonate; Belgium: Hydrogénocarbonate de Sodium; Bulgaria: Sodium Bicarbonate; Cyprus: Sodium Bicarbonate; Czech Republic: Sodium Bicarbonate; Denmark: Sodium Bicarbonate; Estonia: Sodium Bicarbonate; Finland: Sodium Bicarbonate; France: Sodium Bicarbonate; Germany: Natriumhydrogencarbonat, Soludial Bicarbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate; Greece: Sodium Bicarbonate; Hungary: Natrium-Hidrogencarbonicum, Alkaligen, E-Z-Gas II, Na-bikarbonát, Nátrium-Hidrogénkarbonát; Ireland: Sodium Bicarbonate; Italy: SOD B, SOD BIC; Latvia: Sodium Bicarbonate; Lithuania: Sodium Bicarbonate; Luxembourg: Sodium Bicarbonate; Malta: Sodium Bicarbonate; Netherlands: Natriumbicarbonaat, Natriumwaterstofcarbonaat, Sodium Bicarbonate; Poland: Natrium bicarbonicum; Portugal: Alka-Seltzer, Bicarbonato Sódio, Bicarbonato de Sódio, Hospasol; Romania: Sodium Bicarbonate; Slovakia: Sodium Bicarbonate; Slovenia: Hospasol, Natrijev hidrogenkarbonat; Spain: Alka-Seltzer, Bicarbonato de Sosa, Bicarbonato Sódico; Sweden: Natriumbikarbonat; UK: Gripe Mixture, Sodium Bicarbonate.

North America

Canada: Bibag, Bicarbonate Concentrate, Bicart, Hema BP, Hemacart, Natrum Bicarbonicum, Naturalyte Dry Pack for Bicarbonate Dialysis, Naturalyte Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate; USA: Sodium Bicarbonate.

Latin America

Argentina: Bicarbonato de Sodio; Elgydium Blanqueador; Brazil: Bicarbonato de Sódio; Mexico: Betsol-Z, Bicar-Nat, Debonal.


Japan: Berin, Jutamin, Meylon, Prebinate, Sodium bicarbonate, Tansonin.

Drug combinations

Sodium Bicarbonate and Omeprazole

Sodium Bicarbonate, Magnesium Hydroxide, and Omeprazole

Other Sodium Bicarbonate combinations: Aluminum Dihydroxyaminoacetate; Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C); Aspirin; Baking Soda; Belladonna Dust; Benzoate; Bisacodyl; Bismuth Subsalicylate; Borax; Caffeine; Calcium Carbonate; Calcium Chloride; Chamomile Tincture; Citric Acid; Cornmint Oil without Terpenes; Dextrose; Echinacea purpurea; EVA Copolymer; Lactic Acid; Macrogol; Magnesium Carbonate; Magnesium Chloride; Magnesium Oxide; Magnesium Sulfate; Magnesium Trisilicate; Menthol; Myrrh Tincture; Panax ginseng; Peppermint Oil; Polyethylene; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Potassium Bicarbonate; Potassium Chloride; Potassium Nitrate; Potassium Sulfate; Pyrophosphate Tetra; Rhatania Dye; Sage; Sodium Alginate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Fluoride; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate; Sodium Perborate; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Stearate; Sodium Sulfate; Spearmint Oil; Tartaric Acid; Terpeneless Seed Oil; Vinylpyrrolidone


Sodium Bicarbonate: NaHCO~3~. Mw: 84.01. (1) Carbonic acid monosodium salt. CAS-144-55-8.

Pharmacologic Category

Alkalinizing Agents. Antacids and Adsorbents. Parenteral Electrolyte Supplement. (ATC-Code: B05CB04; B05XA02).

Mechanism of action

Dissociates to provide bicarbonate ion. Administration of sodium bicarbonate can cause redistribution of potassium ions into cells in acidosis. Provides bicarbonate, readily excreted in urine. Administration of drug will increase urinary pH in normal renal function. Alkalinizing urine can increase solubility of certain weak acids (e.g. cystine, uric acid) and can increase ionization and urinary excretion of lipid-soluble organic acids (e.g. phenobarbital, salicylates) which are reabsorbed in kidney via diffusion of the un-ionized species. Potent antacid action (each gram of sodium bicarbonate has in vitro neutralizing capacity of about 12 mEq of acid).

Therapeutic use

Metabolic acidosis. Gastric hyperacidity. As an alkalinization agent for urine. Hyperkalemia. Overdose of certain drugs (tricyclic antidepressants, aspirin).

Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Enters breast milk (compatible with lactation).

Unlabeled use

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.


Alkalosis. Hypernatremia. Severe pulmonary edema. Hypocalcemia. Unknown abdominal pain. Excessive chloride loss from vomiting or continuous gastrointestinal suctioning. Oral administration as antidote in treatment of acute ingestion of strong mineral acids.

Warnings and precautions

Use with caution in cirrhosis/edema/heart failure/peptic ulcer disease/renal impairment. Not antacid of choice for the elderly due to sodium content and potential for systemic alkalosis. Rapid administration in neonates and children <2 years of age led to hypernatremia, decreased cerebrospinal fluid pressure and intracranial hemorrhage. Use of I.V. sodium bicarbonate should be reserved for documented metabolic acidosis and for hyperkalemia-induced cardiac arrest. Routine use in cardiac arrest not recommended. Avoid extravasation, tissue necrosis can occur due to hypertonicity of sodium bicarbonate.



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