Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Nutrition/Nutraceutical Interactions
  • Dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Austria: Resonium A; Belgium: Kayexalate Na; Cyprus: Resonium A, Sorbisterit; Denmark: Resonium, Sorbisterit; Finland: Resonium, Sorbisterit; France: Kayexalate; Germany: Resonium A; Greece: Kayexalate; Italy: Kayexalate; Netherlands: Resonium A, Sorbisterit; Poland: Resonium A; Portugal: Resonium; Slovakia: Sorbisterit; Slovenia: Sorbisterit; Sweden: Resonium; UK: Resonium A.

North America

Canada: K-Exit Poudre, Kayexalate, Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate; USA: Kalexate, Kayexalate, Kionex, Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate, SPS.


Japan: Kaliserum-Na, Kayexalate.

Drug combinations


Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: (1) Benzene, diethenyl-, polymer with ethenylbenzene, sulfonated, sodium salt; (2) Divinylbenzene copolymer with styrene, sulfonated, sodium salt.

Pharmacologic Category

Ion-removing Agents; Potassium-removing Agents. Antidotes. (ATC-Code: V03AB). CAS-9003-59-2.

Mechanism of action

A cation-exchange resin used for removal of excess potassium. Releases sodium in exchange for other cations (e.g. potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, organic cations, lipids, steroids, proteins). Sodium is released from resin in exchange for potassium primarily in large intestine, where there is relatively high concentration of potassium present. Each 1 g of resin has in vitro exchange capacity of about 3.1 mEq of potassium (in vivo exchange capacity >1 mEq of potassium per g of resin not likely).

Therapeutic use


Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Unlabeled use


Hypersensitivity to sodium polystyrene sulfonate or any component of the formulation. Hypernatremia, hypokalemia, obstructive bowel disease. Neonates with decreased gut mobility (postoperative or drug-induced). Oral administration in neonates.

Warnings and precautions

Large oral doses may cause fecal impaction (especially in the elderly). Use with caution in severe heart failure and/or hypertension, in edema, and in renal impairment. Avoid using commercially available liquid product in neonates due to preservative content. Enema will reduce serum potassium faster than oral administration, but oral route will result in greater reduction over several hours.



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