Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba L.)

Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Drug Combinations
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Unlabeled Use
  • Pregnancy and Lactation Implications
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Genes that may be involved
  • Substrate of
  • Inhibits
  • Induces
  • Drug Interactions
  • Nutrition/Nutraceutical Interactions
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Belgium: Tanakan, Tavonin; Bulgaria: Bilobil, Memoplant, Tanakan; Estonia: Bilobil, Bio-Biloba, Ginkgo Biloba, Gingium, Ginkgomax, Tanakan; France: Ginkogink, Tanakan, Tramisal, Vitalogink; Germany: Alz, Biloba, Bilobahex FT, Cefaginkgo, Cefavora G, Craton, Floragink, Geriaforce, Gingiloba, Gingio, Gingium, Gingobeta, Gingopret, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginkgobakehl, Ginkgorell, Ginkobil, Ginkodilat, Ginkokan, Ginkopur, Heweginkgo purum, Hexabiloba FT, Isoginkgo, Kaveri, Rökan, SE Ginkgo, SHHE 76/I-II, Tanamin, Tebonin; Greece: Tanacain; Hungary: Bilobil, Gingium, Tanakan, Tebofortan; Ireland: Trilobal; Latvia: Bilobil, Bio-Biloba, Ginkgo Biloba, Gingium, Memoplant, Tanakan; Lithuania: Bilobil, Ginkgo Biloba, Gingium, Memoplant; Luxembourg: Tanakan; Netherlands: A.Vogel Geriaforce, Ginkgo Biloba, Kruidvat Homeopathie Ginkgo; Poland: Bilobil, Bioginko, Flavobil, Ginkgobil/Ginkgophren, Ginkgofol, Ginkgomax, Ginkoba, Ginkocaps, Ginkofar, Herbabiloba, Memoplant, Tanakan, Tinctura Ginkgo Bilobae; Portugal: Abolibe, Biloban, Gincoben, Vasactife; Romania: Bilobil, Flavotan, Gingium, Ginko Biloba, Ginkofar, Tanakan, Tebokan; Slovakia: Bilobil, Gingio, Tanakan, Tebokan; Spain: Ginkgo Biloba, Tanakene; Sweden: Bio-Biloba, Ginkgo Biloba, Gink-Yo, Memazoc, Proginko, Tebokan.

North America

Canada: Ginkgo Biloba.

Latin America

Argentina: Clarvix, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Kalter, Tanakan; Brazil: Ginkgo Biloba; Mexico: Nemoril, Tebonil, Vasodil.

Drug combinations

Ginkgo biloba: Aesculus hippocastanum; Aloe* vera; *Alpha Lipoic Acid; Allii sativa; Ambra grisea; Anamirta cocculus; Antimony; Aranea Diadema; Arginine; Arnica montana; Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C); Asiaticoside; Barberry Root; Biotin (Vitamin B~7~); Borrago* officinalis; *Caffeine; Calcium; Calcium Fluoride; Camellia sinensis; Carnitine; Celandine; Centella asiatica; Cimicifuga racemosa; Cinchona officinalis; Citrullus colocynthis; Cocculus indicus; Coenzyme Q~10~; Conium maculatum; Crataegus monogyna; Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B~12~); Cyclamen europaeum; Cynara scolymus; Cyproheptadine; Cystine; Charcoal (Activated); Chininum hydrochloricum; Cholesterol; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Equisetum arvense; Erigeron canadensis; Escin; Espeletia; Filipendula ulmaria; Flavonoids; Folic Acid (Vitamin B~9~); Fucus vesiculosus; Gelsemium sempervirens; Gentianella achalensis; Ginkgo flavon; Ginkgo terpeenlactonen; Glutamic Acid; Goldenrod; Gotu kola; Grape; Hamamelis virginiana; Hawthorn; Helonias spp.; Heptaminol; Horse Chestnut; Hyaluronic Acid; Hydrastis canadensis; Hydroxy Acids; Hypericum perforatum; Iron; Isopropyl Myristate; Kojic Acid; Lactic Acid; Lapachos; L-Arginine; Latrodectus mactans; Lespedeza capitata; Lipoic Acid; Magnesium; Melilotus officinalis; Mentha piperita; Methionine; New Jersey Tea; Niacin (Vitamin B~3~); Niacinamide; Nicotiana tabacum; Orange Esential Oil; Oryza sativa; Panax ginseng; Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B~5~); PEG-8 Linolate; PEG-8 Linolenate; Phospholipids; Piper nigrum; Piritinol; Plumbum metallicum; Pulsatilla pratensis; Pyridoxine (Vitamin B~6~); Raphanus sativus; Ranunculus bulbosus; Retinol (Vitamin A); Riboflavin (Vitamin B~2~); Robinia pseudoacacia; Ruscus aculeatus; Ruta graveolens; Secale cornutum; Selenium; Silver Nitrate; Silybum marianum; Soy Protein; Spigelia anthelmia; Spiraea ulmaria; Tannins; Taraxacum officinale; Thiamine (Vitamin B~1~); Tocopherol (Vitamin E); Trigo sarracen; Triterpene Acids; Troxerutin; Urea; Viburnum opulus; Viscum album; Vitis vinifera; Zinc


Ginkgo: The dried leaf of Ginkgo biloba Linné (Fam. Ginkgoaceae).

Pharmacologic Category

Anti-Dementia Agents; Nootropics. Natural Product; Herb. Homeopathic product. (ATC-Code: N06DX02).

Mechanism of action

The primary activity of ginkgo appears to be derived from flavoglycosides, which are potent-free radical scavengers. Ginkgo is also reported to inhibit platelet aggregating factor (PAF). May stimulate endothelial releasing factor and prostacyclin and may augment venous tone and improve clearance of toxins during periods of ischemia. In addition, ginkgo may improve cholinergic neurotransmission. Effect of ginkgo may be to increase cerebral blood flow and, therefore, improve oxygen and nutrient delivery while enhancing elimination of metabolic end-products. Ginkgo may reduce capillary fragility and function as an antioxidant. Ginkgo reported to improve circulation in the elderly and proposed to enhance memory, potentially delaying onset of senile dementia and Alzheimer’s. Fruit pulp contains ginkolic acids which are allergens (seeds not sensitizing).

Therapeutic use

Demential syndromes including memory deficits, etc (tinnitus, headache). Depressive emotional conditions, primary degenerative dementia, vascular dementia, or both. Intermittent claudication and cerebral vascular disease (dementia), tinnitus, visual disorders, traumatic brain injury, vertigo of vascular origin. Ginkgo may reverse genital anesthesia and diminished sexual desire induced by fluoxetine.

Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Contraindicated during pregnancy.

Unlabeled use

Investigational: Asthma, impotence (male).


Pregnancy. Patients with clotting disorders. Hypersensitivity to Ginkgo biloba L. preparations.

Warnings and precautions

May cause abdominal problems, nausea, and dyspepsia. Ginkgo demonstrates in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation and has been associated with case reports of bleeding. May be contraindicated in active bleeding (e.g. peptic ulcer, intracranial bleeding). Use with caution in history of bleeding, hemostatic disorders, or drug-related hemostatic problems, and in individuals taking anticoagulant medications, including warfarin, aspirin, aspirin-containing products, NSAIDs, or antiplatelet agents (e.g. ticlopidine, clopidogrel, dipyridamole). Discontinue use prior to dental or surgical procedures (generally at least 14 days before). May increase effect or toxicity of MAOIs. Use with caution in individuals on medication and with pre-existing medical conditions. Potential for adverse effects may be increased with large and prolonged doses. May cause nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal distress. Use caution in known allergies to plants.



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