Table of contents

  • Brand Names
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacologic Category
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Unlabeled Use
  • Pregnancy and Lactation Implications
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings and Precautions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Toxicological Effects
  • Caution and personalized dose adjustment in patients with the following genotypes
  • Inhibits
  • Drug Interactions
  • Nutrition/Nutraceutical Interactions
  • Dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Special Considerations

Brand Names


Belgium: Plaquenil; Bulgaria: Plaquenil; Czech Republic: Plaquenil; Denmark: Ercoquin, Plaquenil; Estonia: Plaquenil; Finland: Oxiklorin; France: Plaquenil; Germany: Plaquenil, Quensyl; Greece: Plaquenil; Ireland: Plaquenil; Italy: Plaquenil; Latvia: Plaquenil; Lithuania: Plaquenil; Luxembourg: Plaquenil; Malta: Plaquenil; Netherlands: Plaquenil; Portugal: Plaquinol; Spain: Dolquine; Sweden: Plaquenil; UK: Plaquenil.

North America

Canada: Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxyquine, Plaquenil; USA: Hydroxychloroquine, Plaquenil.

Latin America

Argentina: Axokine, Evoquin, Metirel, Narbon, Plaquenil, Polirreumin; Brazil: Plaquinol, Reuquinol; Mexico: Plaquenil.

Drug combinations


Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate: C~18~H~26~ClN~3~O H~2~SO~4~. Mw: 433.95. (1) Ethanol, 2-[[4-[(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)amino]pentyl]ethyl]amino-, (±)-, sulfate (1:1); (2)(±)-2-[[4-[(7-Chloro-4-quinolyl)amino]pentyl]ethylamino]ethanol sulfate (1:1). CAS-747-36-4; CAS-118-42-3 (hydroxychloroquine).

Pharmacologic Category

Antiprotozoals; Antimalarials; Aminoquinolone. Biologic Response Modifiers. Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs. (ATC-Code: P01BA02).

Mechanism of action

Interferes with digestive vacuole function within sensitive malarial parasites by increasing pH and interfering with lysosomal degradation of hemoglobin. Inhibits locomotion of neutrophils and chemotaxis of eosinophils. Impairs complement-dependent antigen-antibody reactions.

Therapeutic use

Used for prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, or chloroquine-susceptible P. falciparum. Can also be used for treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by chloroquine-susceptible P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, or susceptible strains of P. falciparum and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Pregnancy and lactiation implications

Avoid use during pregnancy unless benefits of prevention or treatment of malaria outweigh risks. Distributed into milk.

Unlabeled use

Porphyria cutanea tarda, polymorphous light eruptions.


Hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline derivatives. Retinal or visual field changes attributable to 4-aminoquinoline derivatives or to any other etiology. Long-term use in children.

Warnings and precautions

Hydroxychloroquine not effective against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Dose-related retinopathy reported, which may progress even after drug is discontinued. Skeletal muscle palsies or skeletal muscle myopathy or neuromyopathy reported. Use with caution in psoriasis or porphyria (may be exacerbated). Dermatologic reactions might occur (use with caution in tendency for dermatitis). Rare cardiomyopathy associated with long-term use of hydroxychloroquine. Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia reported. Use with caution in G6PD deficiency. Pediatric patients especially sensitive to 4-aminoquinoline derivatives. Prolonged therapy with hydroxychloroquine contraindicated in children. Drug might concentrate in liver (use with caution in hepatic disease or alcoholism and in patients receiving other hepatotoxic drugs).



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